Sustainable Viticulture Resources

Click here for a pdf version of the following information.

Sustainability Information Online  

The Carolina Farm Stewardship Association  is an advocate for sustainable farming in North and South Carolina. Their website also provides this discussion and information on organic certification.

Cornell’s 2011 Guide to Organic Grape Production is a free online 60+ page updated guide to growing grapes organically on the East Coast. 

eXtension Grape Community of Practice features articles and information on grape growing provided by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension. 

Growing Small Farms website: Debbie Roos, extension agent for Chatham County has put together an excellent Organic Certification guide

The National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. This site provides access to articles on soil management, cover crops, farmscaping, and many more sustainable agriculture techniques. (Many articles are available digitally for free). See their organic grape production manual in particular.

NC Small Fruit and Specialty Crop IPM blog. Entomologist Dr. Hannah Burrack’s informative blog on managing insects in commercial small fruits production. 

North Carolina Department of Agriculture Organics page: information on the National Organic Program cost share and applying for certification. 

The Rodale Institute, a center for sustainable agriculture, provides web-based organic transition training

Soil Food Web Oregon’s description of the many contributors to soil health

The Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium provides regional production and Integrated Pest Management information for small fruits including grapes. 

Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education offers factsheets and books available online (most downloads are free with print versions available for purchase). Topics include cover cropping and Integrated Pest Management. 

The USDA provides factsheets on the National Organic Program including production standards and labeling. These can also be found at the National Organic Program link at

Washington State University Resources for Organic Winegrowing

The Xerxes Society for Invertebrate Conservation is a nonprofit organization that protects wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. Their website provides information on practical conservation. See for example their factsheet on Southeast Plants for Native Bees

Funding Sources for Farm Sustainability Projects 

The NOP Organic Cost Share Program is administrated at the state level. Visit the NC Department of Agriculture website for information on applying for the cost share. 

The North Carolina Farm Energy Efficiency Project* provides low-cost energy audits and cost share for energy-related projects. 

The Rural Advancement Foundation International (RAFI) works nationally and internationally to support farmers and farm sustainability. Information on RAFI-sponsored projects to develop  “new income-generating opportunities” for farms through the Tobacco Communities Reinvestment Fund* is available at 

Rural Energy for America Program* (grants and loans to assist rural businesses with renewable energy projects) Contact local USDA Rural Development contact person (statewide contact is David Thigpen 919-873-2065 or

Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) provides producer grants to enable farmers and ranchers to move profitably toward production systems compatible with the concept of sustainable agriculture, with a goal of promoting stewardship, health, and quality of life. Find out about grants available in the Southeast at

The USDA’s Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), a provision of the Farm Bill, provides technical and financial assistance to farmers in pursuing conservation. Since 2008, its mission has specifically included support to farmers in “conservation practices related to organic production.”  

The WNC AgOptions program through the NC Cooperative Extension provides mini-grants as an incentive to diversify farm operations that could generate new economic growth in Western North Carolina. 

*Part of the Family Farm Innovation Fund multi-agency project.


Heaton, et al.  Songbird, Bat and Owl Boxes: Vineyard Management with an Eye toward Wildlife. Oakland, CA: DANR Communications Services, 2008. Publication 21636. 

Ingles, Chuck.  Cover Cropping in Vineyards: A Grower’s Handbook. Oakland, CA: DANR        Communications Services, 1998. Publication 3338. 

McGourty, G.T.,  J. Ohmart, and  D. Chaney. Organic Winegrowing Manual. Oakland, CA: DANR Communications Services, 2011. Publication 3511. 

Rombough, Lon. The Grape Grower: A Guide to Organic Viticulture. Vermont: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2002. 

Varela, Lucia G., and Walt J. Bentley Vineyard Pest Identification and Monitoring Cards. Oakland, CA: DANR Communications Services, 2011. Publication 3532. 


Aguín, O.,  Mansilla, J. P., Vilariño, A., and Sainz, M. J. (2004). Effects of Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Root Morphology and Nursery Production of Three Grapevine Rootstocks. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 55 (1), 108-111.

Nicholls, C. I., Parrella, M., and Altieri, M. A. (2001). The Effects of a Vegetational Corridor on the Abundance and Dispersal of Insect Biodiversity within a Northern California Organic Vineyard. Landscape Ecology, 16 (2), 133-146.

Guerra, B., and Steenwerth, K. (2011). Influence of Floor Management Technique on Grapevine Growth, Disease Pressure, and Juice and Wine Composition: A Review. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture [Pre-released online: November 2011 ajev.2011.10001]

Hostetler, G. L., Merwin, I. A., Brown, M. G. and Padilla-Zakour, O. (2007). Influence of Undervine Floor Management on Weed Competition, Vine Nutrition, and Yields of Pinot noir.” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 58 (4), 421-430.

Ingels, C. A., Scow, K. M., Whisson, D. A., and Drenovsky, R. E. (2005). Effects of Cover Crops on Grapevines, Yield, Juice Composition, Soil Microbial Ecology, and Gopher Activity. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 56 (1), 19-29.

Morlat, R.(2008). Long-Term Additions of Organic Amendments in a Loire Valley Vineyard on a Calcareous Sandy Soil: Effects on Root System, Growth, Grape Yield, and Foliar Nutrient Status of a Cabernet franc Vine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 59 (4), 364-374.

Reeve, J. R.., Carpenter-Boggs, L., Reganold, J. P., York, A. L., McGourty, G., and McCloskey,             L. P. (2005). Soil and Winegrape Quality in Biodynamically and Organically Managed Vineyards. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture,56 (4), 367-376.

Tesic, D, Keller, M., and Hutton, R. J. (2007). Influence of Vineyard Floor Management Practices on Grapevine Vegetative Growth, Yield, and Fruit Composition. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture,58 (1), 1-11.

Walton, V. M., Pringle, K. L. (2001). Effects of Pesticides and Fungicides Used on Grapevines on the Mealybug Predatory Beetle Nephusboschianus. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 22 (2), 2001.